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Paper Towns essay example

The sovereignty of the opulence sphere

Paper Towns and Life of Pi are quite different works, although they have their similarities. Whether their main protagonists have their life settled out or not, both works depict expansion in term of personality. I must warn you it is easier to let the guard down and let yourself be entertained by such amazing written masterpieces than analyzing their themes and hidden metaphors, because there is enough in its compartment.

 

Quentin, who is the protagonist in the novel Paper Towns written by John Green, represents the stop of mental development for American teenagers after the 21th century inaugurated.     If I were to describe Paper Towns with a sentence, I would say it is about a run-of-the-mill A4 male breed representative of the human species who experiences an outcast of an individual and learns there is not a manual for breathing. Quentin sees his friends and material values as a matter of course and does not comprehend why Margo did not want to be found and why his admiration for her cannot be retrieved. In the end, he realises the fake bubble Margo created which became a bait Q felt for although it was not her intention. The misconception clarifies, and they split apart.

 

The American youth need to express more compassion for the less fortuned that is not part of their prosperous society. Paper Towns taught me to hope for a brighter future with the potential of more people leaving their self-made and constructed boring seemingly perfect forced world where they remove the real problems they do not want to deal with and focus on the false love  and braindead entertainment they are presented. If all this is surreptitiously generated to keep the hordes in control to leave the free-minded people space to develop their passions, is merely a conspiracy. This is directed to young first world societies who seems to have less problems to deal with and do not care as much about issues that perhaps does not affect they as world hunger and poverty. Constant war and unfair distribution of resources is discussed less than the latest Justin Bieber album or the party last weekend. Your ancestors plundered and settled colonies to dry other people’s hard claimed values only to create an industry, which exploits this in a significantly greater scale.

 

 

Life of Pi talks about the importance of adapting to life’s possibilities. The novel starts with a Indian family having to sell their zoo animals due to financial circumstances. While transporting the wildlife by sea, a storm brews up and the ocean consumes everything but a pitiful little orange life boat with the content of an orang-outang, a zebra, a hyena, a boy named Piscine and a 600 pound Bengal tiger by the name of Richard Parker. As the fight for survival continues, only the boy and the tiger remains by the end of the first week, and the books portrays their cohabitation for what turns out to be hundreds of days before they strand to civilization. In one of the earliest scenes, Piscine’s father feeds a goat to the tiger to demonstrate the coarseness and brutality of the wild animal. As most people treat big predators with caution and consternation, Piscine develops the ability to proceed as the alpha male. In the beginning of the novel Piscine is by definition a Muslim, but before the shipwreck occurs, he practices both Christianity and Judaism for the pure purpose of curiosity. Contrary to the people who utilize their religion as the one and only way to be seeing life, Piscine tries different religions to observe new lifestyles. He does not conclude that one of them is the better alternative, but evaluate their strengths for the sake of new physiological supplement.

 

Paper Towns and Life of Pi displays the consequences of whether you step out of the opulence sphere or not. Mother Nature positions Piscine in what would seem his certain death, only to have him overcome the obstacles and gain supremacy. Quentin, on the other side, struggles to see the lifestyle that has immerged his identity and prevent his adrenalin level unfold. Friendship goes through both story lines, but with different criteria. In addition of the fact that equal desire creates relations which separates Quentin and Margo, the friendship with between Piscine and Richard Parker based on affection and attachment between such unlike creatures stands out as an association filled with sincere charity. Stepping out of the comfortable box is comparable to Schrödinger’s cat in the way you may not experience the fulfilment if you do not dare the journey.     

Substantiv i flertall

Substantiv er en ordgruppe for grupper, steder og ting (fellesnavn) eller en spesifikk i disse kategoriene (egennavn). Som på norsk skrives fellesnavnene med liten bokstav f.eks. groupchurch eller bike, mens egennavnene skrives med stor bokstav f.eks. Bobby, London eller Wednesday.

Regelrett bøying

1. Som en hovedregel legger en på s for å danne flertall av substantiv.
car – cars
girl – girls
book – books

2. Om substantivet derimot slutter på en s-lyd i entall, vanligvis -ch, sh, x, z eller s, legger en på es i flertall.
church – churches
wish – wishes
box – boxes
buzz – buzzes
gas – gases

3. Hvis substantivet slutter på y med konsonant foran, så endres til i og en legger til es i flertall. Om substativiet derimot slutter på y med vokal foran, så legger en bare til s.
spy – spies
butterfly – butterflies
story – stories

toy – toys
day – days
essay – essays

Uregelrett bøying

1. Noen substantiv som slutter på -o får es-ending i flertall, eksempelvis potato – potatoes, mens andre får ordinære s-ending, eksempelvis logo – logos. Mange substantiv med o-ending kan  også staves på begge måter i flertall.

2. Noen substantiv som slutter på -f eller -fe (med f-lyd) forandrer f  til v i flertall, før en legger til es. Et eksempel er wife – wivesAndre substantiv som slutter på -f får bare en i flertall, eksempelvis roof – roofs. Mange substantiv med f-ending kan også staves på begge måter i flertall.

3. Noen ord faller heller ikke inn under disse «overordnede» kategoriene, og de må derfor læres spesifikt. Se HER for en liste over de viktigste.

Grunnleggende verbbøying

Verb er en ordgruppe for handlinger, tilstander og forekomster som think, sleep og happen. Verbet er det ordet i en setning som oftest gir den en spesifikk mening, og det er derfor viktig at det brukes på riktig måte.

Hjelpeverb

Før en kan gi i gang med verbbøying på engelsk må en ha kontroll på hjelpeverbene som trengs. Et hjelpeverb er rett og slett et verb som trengs for å få frem den spesifikke meningen til hovedverbet i en setning. En trenger i utgangspunktet to hjelpeverb for å uttrykke hovedverb på engelsk.

To be (å være)

Subjekt

Presens

Preteritum

Presens
perfektum

I (1. person entall) 

am

was

have been

You (2. person entall)

are

were

have been

He/She/It (3. person entall)

is

was

has been

We (1. person flertall)

are

were

have been

You (2. person flertall)

are

were

have been

They (3. person flertall)

are

were

have been

To have (å ha)

Subjekt

Presens

Preteritum

Perfektum

I (1. person entall) 

have

had

have had

You (2. person entall)

have

had

have had

He/She/It (3. person entall)

has

had

has had

We (1. person flertall)

have

had

have had

You (2. person flertall)

have

had

have had

They (3. person flertall)

have

had

have had

Infinitiv

Med hjelpeverbene i orden kan vi gå igang med verbbøying i seg selv. Utgangspunktet for bøying av engelske verb finner en i formen infinitiv. Formen tilsvarer den norske, men når en i Norge har å … (verb) så har en på engelsk to … (verb). Eksempler på engelske verb i infinitiv er to live, to fall og to enjoy.

Presens

Det finnes to typer presens på engelsk, presens samtidsform og vanlig presens. Den mest vanlige formen er, ikke overraskende, «vanlig presens» og denne brukes når noe skjer ofte/som en vane/sjeldent/aldri. Presens samtidsform er presensformen for det som skjer akuratt nå, og denne blir behandlet med de andre samtidsformene lenger ned (under utvikling).

For å danne vanlig presens legger en ganske enkelt til hovedverbet (en fjerner infintivsmerke to fra infinitivet av det). Eksempelvis går to play i infinitiv til play/plays i presens. Merk at jeg også skriver plays. Dette fordi verb i presens med 3. person entall (he/she/it) krever at en legger til en s. Eksempel på dette:

Subjekt

To think

To talk

To fight

I, You, We, You, They

think

talk

fight

He, She, It (3 person entall) thinks talks fights

Preteritum 

Med kunnskap om hva presens er kan vi gå videre til fortidsformen preteritum. Preteritum er formen for det som skjedde f.eks. spilte, sang og fant på engelsk played, sang og found. Det som gjør preteritum vanskelig på engelsk er den betydlige mengden urgelrette verb (liste her). Disse må læres spesifikt, men fortvil ikke: Jo mer bevandret du blir i det engelske språket, jo mer selvsagte blir bøyningen av de.

De regelrette verbene er derimot svært enkle å forholde seg til. Her bøyes de likt i alle subjektsformer, og det en ganske enkelt gjør er å legge til ed på slutten av ordet. Eksempel på dette:

Subjekt

To help

To play

To believe

I, You, He/She/It We, You, They

helped

played

believed

Perfektum partisipp

Den andre fortidsformen på engelsk kalles perfektum partisipp. I motsetning til pretertitum som formidler det som skjedde, så formidler perfektum partisipp det som har skjedd. Det høres ut som en minimal forskjell, men det er jo opplagt en forskjell på spilte/played og har spilt/ have/has played. Du går likevel ikke glipp av de urgelrette verbene som også i perfektum partisipp må læres spesifikt (liste her).

Likevel er det svært enkelt å danne perfektum partisipp. Det eneste en gjør er å legge til hjelpeverbet have i presens forann preteritumsverbet. Merk da at 3. person entall får has i motsetning til de andre subjektsformene med have. Eksempel på dette:

Subjekt

To help

To play

To believe

I, You, We, You, They

have helped

have talked

have believed

He, She, It (3 person entall) has helped has played has believed

Sterke verb

Under følger en liste over vanlige sterke verb  (uregelmessige verb) i det engelske språket. Merk at dette ikke er en komplett liste over alle sterke engelske verb (en mer utfyllende liste kan du finne http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_English_irregular_verbs ). Merk også at presens er utelatt da sterke verb ikke får endring, bortsett fra å legge til s i 3. person entall, når det går fra infinitiv til presens.

Infinitiv (og oversettelse) Preteritum Perfektum partisipp
arise (oppstå) arose arisen
awake (vekke opp) awoke awoken
be (am, are, is) (være) was/were been
bear (bære) bore borne
beat (slå) beat beaten
become (bli) became become
beget (avle frem) begot begotten
begin (begynne) began begun
bend (bøye) bent bent
bet (vedde/satse) bet/betted bet/betted
bid (by) bid/bade bid/bade
bide (bli (et sted)) bade/bided bided
bind (binne) bound bound
bite (bite) bit bitten
bleed (blø) bled bled
blow (blåse) blew blown
break (bryte) broke broken
breed (føde/avle frem) bred bred
bring (ta med/bringe) brought brought
broadcast (sende (på tv)/kringkaste) broadcast broadcast
build (bygge) built built
burn (brenne) burnt/burned burnt/burned
burst (gå i stykker) burst burst
can (kunne) could FInnes ikke i denne formen
cast (kaste) cast cast
catch (fange) caught caught
choose (velge) chose chosen
cleave (kløyve) cleft/cleaved cleft/cleaved
come (komme) came come
cost (koste) cost cost
creep (krype) crept crept
cut (kutte/skjære) cut cut
deal (handle) dealt dealt
dig (grave) dug dug
do/does (gjøre) did done
draw (tegne) drew drawn
dream (drømme) dreamt/dreamed dreamed
drink (drikke) drank drunk
drive (kjøre) drove driven
dwell (dvele) dwelt/dwelled dwelt/dwelled
eat (spise) ate eaten
fall (falle) fell fallen
feed (mate) fed fed
feel (føle) felt felt
fight (slåss/kjempe) fought fought
find (finne) found found
flee (flykte) fled fled
fly (fly) flew flown
forbid (forby) forbade forbidden
forget (glemme) forgot forgotten
forsake (forsake/svikte) forsook forsaken
freeze (fryse) froze frozen
get (få) got got
give (gi) gave given
go/goes (gå/reise) went gone
grow (vokse) grew grown
hang (henge) hung hung
have/has (has) had had
hear (høre) heard heard
hide (gjemme) hid hidden
hit (slå) hit hit
hold (holde) held held
hurt (skade) hurt hirt
keep (holde/beholde) kept kept
knit(strikke) knit/knitted knit/knitted
know (vite) knew known
lay (legge) laid laid
lead (lede) led led
lean (lene) leant/leaned lent/leaned
leap (hoppe) leapt/leaped leapt/leaped
learn (lære) learnt/learned learnt/learned
leave (forlate) left left
lend (låne) lent lent/
let (la) let let
lie (ligge) lay lain
light (tenne) lit/lighted lit/lighted
lose (miste/tape) lost lost
make (gjennomføre noe/lage) made meade
mean (mene) meant meant
meet (møte) met met
melt (smelte) melted molten, melted
mow (klippe gresset) mowed mown/mowed
pay (batale) paid paid
plead (trygle) pled/pleaded pled/pleaded
prove (bevise) probed proben/proved
put (sette/legge) put put
quit (slutte) quit quit
read (lese) read read
ride (ri) rode rid/ridden
ring (ringe) rang rung
rise (reise seg/stå opp) rose risen
run (løpe) ran run
saw (sage) sawed sawn/sawed
say (si) said said
seek (søke) sought sought
sell (selge) sold sold
send (sende) sent sent
set (sette) set set
sew (sy) sewed sewn/sewed
shake (riste) shook shaken
shine (skinne) shone shone
shoot (skyte) shot shot
show (vise) showed shown
shrink (minke) shrank/shrunk shrink/shrunk
shut (lukke) shut shut
sing (synge) sang sung
sink (synge) sank sunk
sit (sitte) sat sat
sleep (sove) slept slept
slide (gli) slid slid
smell (lukte) smelt/smelled smelt/smelled
speak (snakke) spoke spoken
spell (stave) spelt/spelled spelt/spelled
spend (bruke) spent spent
spill (forspille/søle) spilt/spilled spilt/spilled
spin (spinne) spun spun
spit (spytte) spat/spit spat/spat
spoil (ødelegge) spoilt/spoiled spoilt/spoiled
spread (spre) spread spread
spring (hoppe) sprang sprung
split (dele) split split
stand (stå) stood stood
steal (stjele) stole stolen
stick (feste) stuck stuck
sting (stikke) stung stung
stink (stinke) stank/stunk stunk
strike (lå) struck struck
swear (banne) swore sworn
swell (svulme) swelled swollen/swelled
swim (svømme) swam swum
swing (svinge) swung swung
take (ta) took taken
teach (lære) taught taught
tear (tære/rive i stykker) tore torn
tell (fortelle) told told
think (tenke/mene) thought thought
throw (kaste) threw thrown
thrust (presse) thrust thrust
understand (forestå) understood understood
upset (velte) upset upset
wake (vekke) woke/waked woken/waked
wear (ha på) wore worn
weave (veve) wove woven
wed (gifte) wed/wedded wed/wedded
weep (gråte) wept wept
win (vinne) won won
wring (vri) wrung wrung
write (skrive) wrote written

Inspirasjon hentet fra http://www.ego4u.com/en/cram-up/grammar/irregular-verbs og http://exploringenglish.cappelendamm.no/c319692/artikkel/vis.html?tid=339967

Short story analysis

Hvordan analysere en novelle – på engelsk? 

Under følger en sjekkliste på som du kan følge når du skal levere inn din novelleanalyse på engelsk, eller skrive din novelleanalyse på engelsk.

SHORT STORY ANALYSIS FORM
PLOT – WHAT happens in the story? Is there a turning point in the story?  
SETTING – WHEN and WHERE is the story set?

  • Time
  • Place
 
CHARACTERS – WHO takes part in the story?

  • Main characters and minor characters
  • How do we get to know the characters? How are they described?
 
THEME – WHY is the story told?

  • The underlying idea of a text
  • Rarely stated directly
 
NARRATIVE TECHNIQUE – HOW is the story told?

  • Point of view (perspective:1st point of view, 3rd person point of view, omniscient or limited)
  • Tone (funny, formal, ironical, satirical etc.)
  • Mood
  • Imagery (metaphor, simile, symbol, personification)
  • Language
  • Chronology, in medias res
    

 

 

 

 

 

 

SIGNIFICANCE OF TITLE?

  • How would you interpret the title of the short story?
 
PERSONAL OPINION

  • Do you like/dislike the story? Give well-founded reasons for your opinion